7th Grade Terms List – World History
Ms. Lockso

This vocabulary list is compiled of all terms students need to know during this year (as determined by Trumbull County, based on the state standards).  Students will be responsible for knowing and using these terms throughout the year.  There will be activities to help learn and practice them as well as being included on our weekly quizzes.   A final test will be given at the end of the year over all of them.   

Terms with definitions:

  1. Civilization - relatively high level of cultural and technological development; point which writing and keeping written records is attained
  2. Culture - learned behavior of a group of people including beliefs, languages, institutions, organizations and material goods (such as tools, homes, clothes, food, etc.)
  3. Cultural Practices - patterns of behavior accepted by a society
  4. Cultural Products - items created by a society; can be tangible (able to touch - such as books, tools, clothes) or intangible (not able to touch - such as plays, music stories)
  5. Cultural Perspectives - opinions accepted as being right or true (AKA belief systems)
  6. Cultural Advancements/Innovations - new ideas or knowledge to continue the growth or success of a society or to make life better within a society
  7. Cultural Legacies - advancements made and then handed down from past generations; gifts to the future from past cultures
  8. Cultural Borrowing - taking of ideas and/or products from another culture to use within own, or to build on/adapt for own use
  9. Social Classes - groups of people who hold similar positions in society, share similar wealth and receive similar respect from other members of society
  10. Gender Roles - different powers given to men and women in each society
  11. Historical Eras - noteworthy time periods studied by men and women in each society
  12. Historical Events - noteworthy events that are studied by historians
  13. Economic Characteristics - traits pertaining to the culture's economy including how wealth is gained or lost, trade, specialization, taxation, etc.
  14. Social Characteristics - traits pertaining to how people interact and communicate
  15. Political Characteristics - traits pertaining to government and its interactions with citizens
  16. Enduring Impact - having a long lasting effect on the world
  17. Significance - importance
  18. Relevant - related to the matter at hand
  19. Reliability - amount of dependability someone/thing has
  20. Essential Characteristics - the "must know" facts about a person, place or event (to describe or explain)
  21. Norms - patterns or traits taken to be typical in the behavior of a social group; accepted routines
  22. Values - moral or philosophical ideals held to be true
  23. Frame of Reference - set of accepted values which an individual or group uses to evaluate behaviors or actions
  24. Belief System - opinions or beliefs of a person or culture which influence viewpoint (see cultural perspective)
  25. Viewpoint - opinion based on one's frame of reference and perspective
  26. Deity - god or goddess
  27. Monotheism - belief in only one deity
  28. Polytheism - belief in more than one deity
  29. Technology - science applied by a group or culture to improve industry or lives with material comforts
  30. Conflict - disagreement resulting from opposing needs, wishes or beliefs
  31. Conquest - the act or process of conquering (to gain or take over by force)
  32. Invasion - the act of invading (entering for conquest or to spread)
  33. War - opposition between two groups; a conflict with death and destruction on both sides
  34. Trade - to give one thing in exchange for another (either monetary - using money; or barter - using products or services)
  35. Cost-Benefit Analysis - looking at the positive outcomes and weighing if they are worth the time, effort, and expense of the activity
  36. Systems of Labor - organization of workers within a society
  37. Specialization - making of only some types of goods or services based on the productive resources available in a region
  38. Interdependence - directly depending on each other
  39. Endowment - permanent gifts; gifts by nature
  40. Supply & Demand - amount of available product and how badly it is wanted
  41. Productive Resource - resource or material used to make goods and services (Including natural resources, human resources and capital goods)
  42. Natural Resources - materials found in nature (can be renewable or nonrenewable) including air, forests, water, minerals and fossil fuels
  43. Human Resources - productive resource consisting of the talents and skills of human beings that contribute to the production of goods and services
  44. Capital Goods - productive goods consisting of human-made materials needed to produce goods and services (including buildings, machinery, equipment and tools)
  45. Scarcity - lacking in number compared to the demand
  46. Trade Agreement - contract or treaty between parties wanting to trade, outlining products, costs, profits, timetables, etc.
  47. Trade Barriers - items blocking the ability to trade easily and freely
  48. Tariffs - taxes or fees on products being imported or exported
  49. Impede - interfere with or slow the progress of
  50. Diffusion - spread of people, ideas, technology and products among places through cultural borrowing
  51. Physical Features/Characteristics - natural aspects of a place or a quality of the Earth's surface
  52. Human Features/Characteristics - an aspect of a place or a quality of the Earth's surface constructed by people
  53. Region - area sharing common physical or cultural characteristics
  54. Physical Region - areas that share the same climate, plant & animal life or landforms (physical features)
  55. Cultural Region - areas that share the same cultural characteristics such as language, history or religious beliefs
  56. Physical Map - map showing the Earth's physical features such as landforms and elevations
  57. Historical Map - map showing specific events or time periods of history
  58. Citizens - persons meeting the requirements of a given society to allow them to have certain rights
  59. Voting Qualifications - criteria to be allowed to vote
  60. Rights - power, privileges, freedoms to which citizens are entitled
  61. Responsibilities - duties that need to be carried out, actions one is accountable or answerable for
  62. Civic Participation - taking part in government
  63. Civic Disobedience - refusal to obey government demands or commands
  64. Political Power - the control given to the government or those working within or associated with the government leaders
  65. Political Process - the series of steps and issue concerning the government must follow
  66. City-State - self-ruling area consisting of a city and surrounding territory all under one government
  67. Anarchy - state of lawlessness
  68. Radical - extreme; describing someone who believes major political or social changes are necessary
  69. Theocracy - form of government led by religious leaders
  70. Monarchy - form of government led by royalty such as a king, queen or chief
  71. Kingdoms - community or major territory having a monarchial form of government headed by a king or queen
  72. Totalitarian - strict control of all aspects of life by the government rule
  73. Direct Democracy - government in which all citizens have an equal vote on all issues before a decision in made
  74. Democratic vs. Direct Democracy - allowing citizen participation in government compared to all citizens having to take an active part in government
  75. Republic - form of government where people hold the power by voting for representatives (AKA representative democracy)
  76. Representative Democracy - form of government in which citizens vote for representatives (officials) to make decisions on issues (AKA republic)
  77. Imperialism - policy used by strong countries to gain social, political and economic control over foreign territories
  78. Empire - major political unit having a large amount of territory under single authority
  79. Feudalism - political system of Western Europe during the Middle Ages, based on the relationship of lords to vassals
  80. Manorialism - economic system of Western Europe during the Middle Ages, based on the manors being self-sufficient
  81. Mercantilism - economic system developed as feudalism decayed to unify and increase the power and wealth of a nation by strict government regulations over the entire economy
  82. Crusades - series of holy wars fought between Christians and Muslims during the 11th-13th centuries
  83. Magna Carta - document giving freedoms (civil or personal rights) to English nobles that King John I was forced to sign in 1215
  84. Bill of Rights - summary of basic privileges and rights guaranteed to people against violation by the government (first ten amendments to our constitution)
  85. Renaissance - transitional period in Europe between the Middle Ages and modern times; started in Italy in the 14th century and lasting until the 17th century; marked with a rebirth of classical art, architecture and humanism
  86. Humanism - philosophy of the Renaissance era, focusing more on the importance of humans and less on the divine
  87. Reformation - 16th century religious movements started by Martin Luther; rejection or modification of Roman Catholic Church which led to the establishment of the Protestant Church
  88. Divine Right - prior to 17th century and Enlightenment many people believed that God gave a monarch the right to govern/rule the citizens
  89. Enlightenment - movement of the 17th/18th century when people started to question Divine Right; tried to use reasoning and scientific thinking to understand and explain the world
  90. Colonialism - a system where one country extends its control over foreign dependencies especially for economic benefit
  91. Columbian Exchange - trading of plants, animals, and diseases from explorations and colonization of the new world







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