Advances in the Renaissance


The Italian Renaissance

Economics - wealthy patrons provided financial support to fuel the Renaissance.

Culture - during the Italian Renaissance, artists and writers made many advances in the arts and learning.

Science and technology - the Renaissance witnessed the development of new artistic and engineering techniques.

The Renaissance first developed in Italy, which was home to large and thriving cities. The Italian Renaissance gave rise to great achievements in the arts. The Renaissance influenced mainly the upper class of society. 

The growth of cities and the support of monarchs contributed to the spread of Renaissance ideas.

The northern Renaissance produced many great artists, writers, and scholars.

Printing and the use of the vernacular helped to spread Renaissance ideas and increase learning. 

Florence shines - banking, clothing industries brought great wealth to Florence; one of Europe's largest cities by the early 1300; population 120,000 people; many artists, writers settled in Florence; patrons were the financial supporters of artists. The Medici banking family ruled Florence, in support of the arts 

Role of monarchs - unified governments of England, France supported the arts with money; many rulers viewed artistic achievement as a source of national pride 

Cultural interaction - in the late 1400s, artists fled war in Italy; moved to northern Europe; Italian, Northern European artist interacted; shared ideas, and styles 

Advances during the Renaissance

Math and science - Renaissance scholars began using letters in algebraic equations; scientists put forth new theories about the universe and the earth; advances also occurred in the fields of anatomy and cartography

The printing press - Johan Gutenberg - inventor of the printing press; printed the Bible in 1455; the printing press was a machine that pressed paper against inked movable type; it allowed printers to produce numerous copies more quickly, easily

The impact of printing - the printing press had a tremendous impact on European Society; books became widespread and cheap; more people learned to read; Renaissance ideas spread more rapidly across Europe; writers wrote in the vernacular or native language rather than Latin; mass printing of the Bible allowed people to interpret the text for themselves 

Advances in the arts

New techniques - Renaissance writers, painters experimented with new techniques, styles – they sought more realism; abandoned two-dimensional style of medieval art; perspective - art technique to produce three-dimensional appearance

Leading figures - Leonardo da Vinci born 1452 near Florence; painter, inventor, scholar who created masterpieces such as the Last Supper and the Mona Lisa.  Michelangelo born 1475 in Italy; sculptor and painter; Moses, David, Sistine Chapel ceiling are some of his greatest works; Italian painter Raphael studied the works of da Vinci and others; The School of Athens was one of his most famous pieces.

Other influential artists - Titian, used right colors, broad strokes; painted Crowning with Thorns; Sandro Botticelli’s style marked by delicate colors, flowing lines, his paintings were poetic, not as realistic as other Renaissance artists. 

Architecture and engineering - Filippo Brunelleschi was influential Renaissance architect; he designed large domes for churches; including the Duomo; he created techniques for raising construction materials onto buildings

Renaissance writers - Renaissance writers focus on portraying real-life; Dante Alighieri wrote nonfiction, poetry and Italian instead of Latin; his epic The Divine Comedy focused on spirituality, life after death

Cervantes - he was an influential Spanish writer; his greatest work is Don Quixote; novel tells of landowner who imagines he is a knight

Machiavelli - he published The Prince in 1513; gives a realistic view of politics 




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